November 30, 2022


Hypothesis: Betaine decreases the pathogenicity of Covid-19.

Higher serum choline and betaine levels are associated with better body composition in male but not female population

Xiang Gao



Animal studies proved that choline and betaine have beneficial effect on reducing body fat. However, evidence in humans is scarce. We aim to investigate the association between serum choline and betaine levels with body composition in general population.


This is an observational cross-sectional study performed in 1081 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics) study. Serum choline and betaine levels were measured based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry technology. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses.


Significantly inverse correlations were found between serum betaine levels and all obesity measurements in males (r ranged from -0.12 to -0.23, and p<0.01 for all) but not in females. Serum choline was negatively associated with total percent body fat (%BF), percent trunk fat (%TF), weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (r ranged from -0.11 to -0.19, and p<0.05 for all) in males and positively associated with weight, BMI and WC (r ranged from 0.09 to 0.10, and p<0.05 for all) in females. The negative associations between serum choline and betaine levels with obesity in males were more profound in those not on any medication than those taking medications. Moreover, obese males had the lowest serum choline and betaine levels, followed by overweight males, and normal weight males having the highest serum choline and betaine levels, especially in those not taking medications (p<0.05). Likewise, subjects with the highest serum levels of both had the lowest obesity indexes, especially those not taking medications.


Higher serum choline and betaine levels were associated with a more favorable body composition (lower body fat and higher lean body mass) in males and the favorable association was more pronounced in non-medication users.