November 30, 2022

BETACH3

Hypothesis: Betaine decreases the pathogenicity of Covid-19.

Organic osmolytes betaine, sorbitol and inositol are potent inhibitors of erythrocyte membrane ATPases.

Moeckel GW1Shadman RFogel JMSadrzadeh SM.

Abstract

Organic osmolytes are used in animal and plant cells to adapt to hyper- and hypoosmolar stress. We used our RBC-membrane model to investigate the effects of the osmolytes betaine, sorbitol and myo-inositol on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase and calmodulin-stimulated Ca(2+)-ATPase (CaM). Our results show that betaine inhibited ATPases by more than 61%: Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (75 +/- 5.9 vs 27 +/- 2.2), Ca(2+)-ATPase (236 +/- 18.9 vs 62 +/- 4.9), and CaM (450 +/- 18 vs 174 +/- 6.9) (microM pi/min/mg protein, control (0 microM betaine) vs 100 micromol/L betaine). Sorbitol (100 micromol/L) inhibited the Ca(2+)-ATPases by 41% (126 +/- 7.6 vs 74 +/- 4.4) and CaM by 42% (253 +/- 17.7 vs 147 +/- 10.3). Inositol (100 micromol/L) inhibited Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase strongest (37 +/- 1.9 vs 20 +/- 1.0; 47% inhibition) while it showed a lesser effect on the Ca(2+)-ATPases (136 +/- 6.8 vs 102 +/- 5.1; 25% inhibition). All osmolytes inhibited RBC membrane ATPases at concentrations above 50 micromol/L, which corresponds to high normal physiologic range for organic osmolytes in serum. Furthermore, the presence of osmolytes (250 micromol/L) decreased hypoosmotic stress induced hemolysis by 42%. Together these data indicate an important regulatory role of organic osmolytes on human RBC membrane ATPases and a protective function of osmolytes in RBCs against hypoosmotic stress.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12231402

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