May 22, 2024

BETACH3

Hypothesis: Betaine decreases the pathogenicity of Covid-19.

Betaine Suppresses Proinflammatory Signaling During Aging: The Involvement of Nuclear factor-kappaB via Nuclear Factor-Inducing kinase/IkappaB Kinase and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases

Eun Kyung Go 1Kyung Jin Jung

Abstract

Betaine is an important human nutrient obtained from various foods. In the present study, we assessed the anti-inflammatory effect of betaine on nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) during aging. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, ages 7 and 21 months, were used in this study. The older rats were fed betaine. To elucidate the effect of betaine on oxidative stress-induced NF-kappaB and its signaling pathway at molecular levels, YPEN-1 cells were used. Results showed that betaine suppressed NF-kappaB and its related gene expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in aged kidney. Furthermore, betaine attenuated oxidative stress-induced NF-kappaB via nuclear factor-inducing kinase/IkappaB kinase (NIK/IKK) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in the YPEN-1 cells. On the basis of these results, we concluded that betaine suppressed the age-related NF-kappaB activities associated with upregulated NIK/IKK and MAPKs that were induced by oxidative stress. Thus, betaine might be useful as a preventive agent against the activation of NF-kappaB induced during inflammation and aging.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16282556/