May 22, 2024


Hypothesis: Betaine decreases the pathogenicity of Covid-19.

Regulation of Cytochrome c Oxidase by Natural Compounds Resveratrol, (–)-Epicatechin, and Betaine

Icksoo Lee


Numerous naturally occurring molecules have been studied for their beneficial health effects. Many compounds have received considerable attention for their potential medical uses. Among them, several substances have been found to improve mitochondrial function. This review focuses on resveratrol, (–)-epicatechin, and betaine and summarizes the published data pertaining to their effects on cytochrome c oxidase (COX) which is the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is considered to play an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration. In a variety of experimental model systems, these compounds have been shown to improve mitochondrial biogenesis in addition to increased COX amount and/or its enzymatic activity. Given that they are inexpensive, safe in a wide range of concentrations, and effectively improve mitochondrial and COX function, these compounds could be attractive enough for possible therapeutic or health improvement strategies.