June 25, 2024


Hypothesis: Betaine decreases the pathogenicity of Covid-19.

Glycine Betaine Relieves Lead-Induced Hepatic and Renal Toxicity in Albino Rats

Farid Abdelrazek 1,Dawlat A. Salama 1,Afaf Alharthi


Lead (Pb) is a widespread and nondegradable environmental pollutant and affects several organs through oxidative mechanisms. This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant protective effect of glycine betaine (GB) against Pb-induced renal and hepatic injury. Male albino rats (n = 45) were divided into three groups: G1 untreated control, G2 Pb-acetate (50 mg/kg/day), and G3 Pb-acetate (50 mg/kg/day) plus GB (250 mg/kg/day) administered for 6 weeks. For G3, Pb-acetate was administered first and followed by GB at least 4 h after. Pb-acetate treatment (G2) resulted in a significant decrease in renal function, including elevated creatinine and urea levels by 17.4% and 23.7%, respectively, and nonsignificant changes in serum uric acid levels. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphates (ALP) activities were significantly increased with Pb treatment by 37.6%, 59.3%, and 55.1%, respectively. Lipid peroxidation level was significantly increased by 7.8 times after 6 weeks of Pb-acetate treatment. The level of reduced glutathione (GSH-R) significantly declined after Pb-acetate treatment. Pb-acetate treatment also reduced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) by 74.1%, 85.0%, and 40.8%, respectively. Treatment of Pb-intoxicated rats with GB resulted in a significant reduction in creatinine, urea, ALT, AST, and lipid peroxidation, as well as a significant increase in the level of GSH-R and in the activities of ALP, SOD, GST, and GSH-PX. The molecular interaction between GB and GSH-PX indicated that the activation of GSH-PX in Pb-intoxicated rats was not the result of GB binding to the catalytic site of GSH-PX. The affinity of GB to bind to the catalytic site of GSH-PX is lower than that of H2O2. Thus, GB significantly mitigates Pb-induced renal and liver injury through the activation of antioxidant enzymes and the prevention of Pb-induced oxidative damage in the kidney and live